COPPER: ITS BIOLOGICALROLE AND TOXICITY
AMITA MISHRA , DEVANGEE SHUKLA , KRISHNAKUMAR 2 1 VAGHELA AND MEENU SARAF
1Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India 2 Department of Life science, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Emailfirstname.lastname@example.org
Universally the demand for copper is one of the largest next only to iron and aluminium. Copper occurs in the soil mostly in divalent form. The Cu ion is present as inorganic and organic positively charged groups and is dissolved in the soil system as Cu2+ and organic Cu complexes. The divalent Cu ion has a strong affinity to soil organic matter compared with other divalent cationsin order offollowing sequence: Cu > Ni >Pb> Co > Ca > Zn >Mn> Mg. The Cu2+ concentration in the soil solution are governed by Cu adsorption to organic and inorganic soil particles. Copper can be released into the environment by both natural sources and human activities. When copper ends up in soil it strongly attaches to organic matter and minerals. Copper can seriously influence the productivity of certain farmlands, depending upon the acidity of the soil and the presence of organic matter. Under physiological conditions, the metal Cu can be converted to two common forms, the reduced Cu (I) state and the oxidized Cu (II) state. Mechanisms of Cu2+ion toxicity with relation to proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids and metabolites leads to significant changes in them and decreased feasibility.Similarly, an effect of toxicity is also observed in respiration. Copper is mandatory for the growth and metabolism of microorganisms since it is a cofactor for numerous enzymes. Under anaerobic conditions, the conversion of Cu2+ to Cu+ can be responsible for decreased survival of bacterial species. The plants grown under copper deficiency also show impairment in the photosynthetic transport chain. Copper toxicity can occur from the repeated use of fungicides that contain copper. The symptoms of copper deficiency are cupping and slight chlorosis of either the whole leaf or between the veins of the new leaves. Recently, synthesis of copper nanoparticles is being carried out using chemical and biological methods. The impact of copper nanoparticles depends on size, component and have some adverse result. However, the potential risk of use of copper nanoparticles must be assured before releasing them.
Keywords: Copper, Bioremediation, Toxicity[Download]